DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC EDUCATION IN SIKKIM SO FAR

Public education is that all children have a right to free and appropriate education. In other words, each and every child should have access to education irrespective of the caste, creed, sex and economic condition of the parents. Educational institutions are the base where students receive foundation for learning, critical thinking and overall personality development. The 86th Constitution (Amendment) Act of 2002, (insertion of Article 21 (A), made primary education a fundamental right. It provided for free and compulsory education to all children in the age group of 6 to 14 years. The Right of children to Free and Compulsory Education Act (RTE) was passed in 2009. This means that every child has the right to full time elementary education of satisfactory and equitable quality in a formal school in a neighborhood school and which must satisfies certain essentials norms and standards. This came into effect on April 2010. Education in India provided by public school (controlled and funded by three levels: central, state and local) and private school. 

DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC EDUCATION IN SIKKIM SO FAR
image source: KLCC.org

Education is a process of imparting knowledge to student. This process may contain different kinds of steps depending on the stage and the quality. Education is the social introduction through which the human beings can guide his destiny and save the future. Education is also important in social and economic development of the country. Education thus, is an extremely importance element and pre-condition to the development of democracy. Education brings freedom, equality, and humanism to the life of an individual and society as well. It is empowering to people to comprehend the world out of the box and society as well.

 Sikkim, a small kingdom which is situated in the Eastern Himalayas, is a mountainous state that share the borders with Tibet in the north, Nepal in the west, Bhutan in the northeast and Darjeeling Hills in the state of West Bengal in the south. Its northern part is an extension of great plateaus descending from Tibet. Sikkim was ruled by Tibetan origin kings since 1642, the coronation of the first king PhuntsogNamgyal at Yuksom, West Sikkim. Subsequently Sikkim became a Buddhist kingdom. Buddhist monasteries and Gompas were established in Sikkim and the education as such was started in Sikkim as monasteries in Buddhist scripts to prepare the children to be future monks. Teachers were brought from Tibetan monasteries.Till the major part of 19th century education in Sikkim remained this type. Modern form of education for boys began during the early period of 20thcentury and this was introduced in Sikkim by the Christian missionaries. Girl’s education remained in lace making kind of activities.

 In the initial period, education in Sikkim was exclusively was for the rich kid of Kazis and Thikadars and other so called rich. This also perpetuated a rural-urban divide. Villages were under the control of absentee landlords and their stooges. In Sikkim, the landlords had vast powers of revenue collection, policing, registration of lands. They were also acted as the magistrates. The poor peasants were exploited endlessly under the yoke of feudalism. The Bustiwallas were either illiterate or semi-literature. They did not have the resources to send their wards to the schools if eve if schools were there. Education opportunity was not universalized while it was restricted to the upper class people. The scope of government activity in the term of administration, welfare, development and other essential activities were minimal. 

As already mentioned, the history of school education in Sikkim began in the early 20th century. Prior to that there was no proper system of education existed in Sikkim. They did not have a proper administration system also. AccordingJames Claude White, the First British Political Officer of Sikkim, “Chaos reigned everywhere; there was no revenue system, the Raja taking what he required from the people, those nearest the capital having to contribute the largest share, while those more remote had toll taken from them by the local officials in the name of Raja, though little found its way to him; no court of justice, no police, no public works, no education for the younger generation.”

In Sikkim the Scottish Missionaries who arrived in Sikkim in early 20th century started schools for the Bustiwallas for the first time. Till then, only those who were rich and influential could afford education in Sikkim. Those who had resources had either gone to Darjeeling, (where the missionaries established a strong education system), or had gone to other parts of India. Few wealthiest ones even sent their children abroad for education. The Scottish Missionaries found that child labor was rampant in Sikkim and hence along with the day schools, they also started night schools to facilitate the child labor to have accession to education. 

The real education was started when the British government developed education in Sikkim. 

In 1830s some missionaries established school at Gangtok. During the time of Tashi Namgyal dynasty a primary school of girls was started by Scottish missionaries. Finnish missionaries of the Scandinavian mission Alliance established school at Khamdong, sang, Dentam, Lachen, Chakung and mangan. James Claude White was also interested to establish an English boarding school at Gangtok. He also provided the financial support to missionary’s school. A Bhutia boarding school was established in 1906 and the Nepali boarding school in 1907. Later on it was felt that, this was encouraging communal division in Sikkim society. Thus both this schools were amalgamated intoa high school; called Sri Tashi Namgyal Academy high school in 1925. The school was named aft missionaries school the Maharaja of Sikkim TashiNamgyal. 

 In 1909, SidkeongTulku king of Sikkim founded Enchey School in the Enchey Gumpa to provide Buddhist education to lamas drawn from various monasteries in Sikkim, on government expense.By 1921, there were three government schools in Sikkim, one in Namchi (South Sikkim), one in Rehnock (East Sikkim) and the third one being at Pathing (East Sikkim). In 1922 a Board of Education was established with Mharakumar as President and 12 members from among theKazis and elites as members.

 From the beginning the students were taught by teachers from Darjeeling, Kalimpongas there was a scarcity of educated persons in Sikkim and later on teachers from the Sikkim itself started teaching. The new building being given in the name PalzorNamgyal Girls school, in memory of the Crown Prince Paljore who had died in a in a Royal Air Force plane crash in 1941. In 1945, it was recognized as a high school by Calcutta University, it is not a government school at present, but an aided school. 

 After 1975 when Sikkim became the part of Indian Union, the educational administrative structure of the state was well organized from top to the bottom to match the modern system of education. So during the passage time people of rural as well as urban areas of Sikkim, parents began to send their children to school for basic education, which is necessary to get admission in class one in the present system of education.The State government gradually in collaboration with the Central Government of India has been taking necessary measure to make Sikkim one of the modern and developed states of India. Obviously, education has been assigned in the plans of the state which is now playing a decisive role to bring about development of the state. With the large expansion and increasing in the state activity the government of post-merger Sikkim has needed a large number of educated workforces to work in the administration of the State. Due to special provisions granted to Sikkim, all the staff in the governmental administration, except in the Indian Administrative Cadre, must be selected from the Sikkimese. This also contributed to the development of education in Sikkim.

 The Government of Sikkim has given importance to the education sector through various plans in different period. Sikkim with the help of the Government of India increased the number of educational institutions in Sikkim. It was poor during 19th century but with the passage of time most of the schools were built and facilities is provided by the government of Sikkim in the field of education. In today’s scenario in Sikkim the education system also changed the mindset of the Sikkimese people. They believed in education is better than the agriculture work.

 Darjeeling and Kalimpong are two districts situated closer to Sikkim. Until the 1835, when British took over this area, these were part of Sikkim. British began tea plantations in Darjeeling and the workforce was brought from Nepal. Christian missionaries began to work in Darjeeling in early 19th century. Apart from the conversions to the Christianity, they also introduced elementary education in the region and also started many educational institutions in Darjeeling. Perhaps, Darjeeling can claim some of the oldest educational institutions in the region. Since Bishop Milman of Calcutta founded a girls’ school in Darjeeling girls in the year 1895. This school was known as St. Michael School later.

 The school was followed European and Anglo- Indian curriculum; curriculum resembled those followed by schools in England. During those days, these schools were inaccessible to the children of common folk, who were toiling in the tea plantations, as it was very expensive only children of Europeans, military personal, businessmen, business executive, and latterly a handful of rich Indian could afford to send their children there. So the educational facilities in the early stage were to cater the needs of the elite class in the society. However, some European Christian missionaries came forward to set up elementary schools for local Lepcha, Nepali and Bhutia children. The first attempt to reach the children of ordinary people was made about 1850 bya private missionary, when he started a public school for the children of Lepchas in Darjeeling. However, the financial investment made on them was a mere fraction of the outlay of the total amount spent for education. A large portion went for the maintenance of on those meant of European and Anglo-Indian children.

 As in Sikkim, the Scottish Missionaries have a big role in establishing educational institutions in Darjeeling. They established schools in Darjeeling town, Kurseong and Kalimpong town. The most importance establishment for European education in Kalimpong was established in the year 1900 by late Rev. Dr. J.A Graham, from Church of Scotland. The main objective was to board and educate the children of British officials or other European parentage.

During those days’ school which were situated I three urban center of Darjeeling district were set up in 19th and early 20th century. In those days their main purpose at that time was to provide for European and Anglo-Indian children the type of education in Darjeeling Scottish Missionary were the pioneers. 

 On the eve of Independence of India, there were 322 primary schools, 23 English school medium Middle schools, 10 European schools, 1-degree College, and 3 teachers’ training schools in Darjeeling. In short, though different part of same region, Darjeeling faired far better than Sikkim in the educational sector. In the introduction part of this study will make an attempt compare Sikkim with Darjeeling the early development of education.

 THE DEVELOPMENT IN THE EDUCATION SECTOR SINCE 1975

The number of Government School rose to 211, while the number of private school reduced to 56. Statistics revealed that in 1977, there were 228 Primary School, 30 Junior High School, eight High/Higher Secondary Schools, and one college; the total enrolment reached during the year was 20,959 pupils, with girls accounting for 34% of the total enrolment. During the year 1980, the total enrolments were 52,606 students in 320 primary schools, 44 junior high (middle schools), 29 High Secondary School, and seven in higher secondary school with 38 percent being girls. 100 pre-primary centers had enrolled about 3,000 children.

During the year 1981 the literacy rate of Sikkim was 34.05% with a female literacy of 22.20%.in the year 1991 it increased to 54.39. However, people in Sikkim understood the importance of education and this was reflected on the literacy rate in Sikkim in general and on the female literacy rate in particular. According to 2001 census, Sikkim had total a population of 540,851, among them 318,335 were literate; an overall literacy rate of Sikkim was 68.8 percent. The literacy rate of male was 76 and female was 60.4 percent respectively.  According to 2011 census, the overall literacy rate in Sikkim was 82.20; male literacy rate was 87.29 and female literacy rate was 76.43 which are well above female literacy rate at national level which is 65.46%. Generally, girls’ education is promoted in Sikkim and girls’ outnumbered boys as far as the higher education are concerned. The next census is in 2021 and the literacy rate will be much higher then.

As per 2011 census, among the North Eastern states, Mizoram has the highest literacy rate and it able to occupy the third highest place in the country. Simultaneously Sikkim also occupies a third highest place among north eastern states and thirteenth place among states of India in the literacy.

From 1997 onwards the pupils of Sikkim state appeared in the examination conducted by CBSE. The education of school was brought out of West Bengal system and the policy measures as recommended by the Kothari Commission were duly started to be implemented. In those days so many difficulties had to be encountered, yet the nascent state of Sikkim happened to avail of the advantages owing to the national education policy, which Thuling has mentioned as followed:

  1. The text book used by the school of Sikkim were all provided by the NCERT (National Council of Educational Board and Training) and CBSE (Central Board of Secondary Education) which relieved the state government of its vast responsibilities.
  2. The education being in the concurrent list this state of Sikkim could avail of the centers proponed aid the matter of moderation of curriculum.
  3. The state council now enjoys the opportunity of learning the National language like Hindi, for which the state is provided with financial aid. 
  4. The recognized vernacular language of the state like Nepali, Tibetan, Bhutia, Lepcha and limbu got the systematic director to prepare text-books for the board examination.
  5. Within the national Educational Education policy, the state very well could review and modify on its own the text- books to suit their social and environmental condition and needs.
  6. As the education director was converted to the Education secretariat since 1980, the education department could be expanded and extended further.

 

The scheme of DIET as a centrally sponsored schema was extend to Sikkim in 1998, as a part of National Level intervention for re-structuring and re-organizing Teachers Education (NEPI 1986). However, it was only in 1998 that TTI was converted into a DIET. At present DITE offers two-years pre-service training programs along with other short term in-service programs at regular intervals. The state has sanctioned two additional DITEs for South and West District.

A District center for the Teaching of English was set up in Namchi (South, Sikkim) under the District Center Scheme of the Central Institute of English and foreign Languages (CIEFL), Hyderabad, MHDR, GOI, a Deemed University to conduct short term training programmer for teachers teaching English at the Secondary level with an objective of improving English Language Teaching.The center also conducts one year correspondence –cum-contact coursesin Certificate in English Language Teaching (CELT).  

 The Government of Sikkim has given importance to the education sector through various plans in different period. In Sikkim with the help of the Government of India increased the number of educational Institutions. It was very poor during 19th century but with the passage of time most of the schools were built and facilities is provided by the government of Sikkim in the field of education. In today’s scenario in Sikkim the education system also changed the mindset of the Sikkimese people. They believed in education is better than the agriculture work.

The Directorate of Technical education has been functioning in the Human Resource Development Department since 1998 and there were considerable activity in this area. The overall development of the largely depends on technological advancement and Technical Education in the state has a big role to play in this regard. The Directorate is administratively responsible for all matters reality to technical education. It deals with matters relating to the State Broad of Technical Education in Sikkim and also matters relating to All Indian Council for Polytechnic Education and the establishment of private university in the state as well relating to the Central University in Sikkim. The Directorate also looks after all matters relating to the grant of Scholarship to student as per the state government norms. So, it also implements computer education programmers in Secondary and Senior Secondary School in Sikkim. The thrust during the Tenth Plans period was on the:

  1. Consolidation of the World Bank assisted Polytechnics in East and South Sikkim.
  2. Continued Support and encourage to Sikkim Manipal University.
  3. Established of four more Polytechnics in the private sector. 
  4. Consolidation of Industrial Training Institute in offering more work.

The Number of Technical institute affiliated with various Broad and Universities so fare established in the State are as follows:

  1. Sikkim Manipal Institute of Technology, Majhitar, East Sikkim, and SMU.
  2. Advance Technology Training Center (ATTC), Bardang, East Sikkim, (Polytechnic) State Government, AICTE.
  3. Center of Computer and Communication Technology (CCCT), Chisopani, South Sikkim. (Polytechnic) State Government AICTE.
  4. ITI, Rangpo (under the Labor Department) State Government NCVT.
  5. Himalayan Pharmacy Institute, Majhitar, East Sikkim private NBU.

 

SARVA SHIKSHA ABHNIYANAND STATUS OF EDUCATION IN SIKKIM

SarvaShikshaAbhiyan, an innovative education programme: education for all was launched in Sikkim during the year 2000-2001. The main goal of SSA is to ensure and achieve universal access, universal enrolment, universal retention, and universal achievement. The SarvaShiksha State Mission was registered under the Act vide registration No. 31 (society) LD/ 2000-01/45 21.12.200. The mission consists of a General Body and the Executive Committee. The Chief Minister is the President of General body and the Chief Secretary, is the chairperson of the Executive Committee. 

Every district has a District Mission of SSA. The Chairman of the Mission is the District Collector of the concerned district and the Joint Director, HRDD of every district acts as the Vice Chairman. The mission also has members from Panchyati Raj Institutions (PRIs), representatives of educational institutions, NGO representatives, Socials Workers, Teachers and Head of the Rural Management and representatives from Health and Social Welfare and other Departments. There is a full-fledged executive body under this mission in every district which is known as the District Project Office headed by the Joint Director.

The Block Level Unit of SSA is called the Block Resource Center. There are 25 Block Resource Coordinators, 115 Cluster Resource Coordinators, and 868 School Management Committee in Sikkim including the monastic School and Sanskrit Pathsalas. A school Management Committee has been constituted in each Government School consisting of Teachers, Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRI) members, Social Workers and Parents. When the SarvaShikshaAbhiyan was launched in Sikkim, the West District was selected under the first phase in 2000-2001; the other three districts, North, south, and East were covered during 2001-02. An annual plan was prepared during the preparatory phase on available resources in the district in particular year. The compiled data has been submitted to MHRD, New Delhi through the State Mission Authority, of Sikkim. The plans were approved by the Project Approval Bord, New Delhi. 

According to the Annual Report 2005-2006 of SarvaShikshaAbhiyan (SSA) in Sikkim, there are 37 Education Guarantee Scheme centers in Sikkim covering of 850 children. All these centers are run by different registered Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) under the supervision of District Project Offices of the State. In 2005, following NGOs were selected to run the EGS Centres in different districts of the State;

1)  BidyaBharati –Headquarter in Gangtok, (East District) 

2) Milan SamajSewaSamiti, Mellidara, (West District)

 3) Himalayan Education Society, TemiTarku, (South District) 

4) TeestaTendong Club, BurmiokTokal, (South Sikkim) 

5) MutanchiLhomAalShezum, Headquarter in Mangan, (North District) 

 

The Government of Sikkim takes some major steps in partnership with the SarvaShikshaAbhiyan (SSA), local government and with NGOs for providing elementary education to all children in the age group 6-14 years in Sikkim. Besides in Sikkim all the government organizations encourage the Self-help Group, Teachers, parents and women’s organizations to monitor that progress of the programme and thus strengthen the accountability of the programme. 

In 2005, the Government of Sikkim had made a ground level policy for the development of educational structure in the state. The number of educational institutions in the State was increased considerably in the last two decades. Maximum numbers of schools are found in East district, which is thickly populated place too. In 2005 there were 1094 schools in the state and out of which 312 schools were runs by private organization, local bodies, and Government Aided.

During the 10th Five year Plan (2002-2007), the state Government took the initiative to give top priority to the education and to ensure maximum access to educational facilities to all children in the state above the age of 5 years. The thrust area of action identified during the preparation of the perspective plans for the development of Education in the State are as follows:  

  1. Need based expansion of physical facilitates and improvement of existing facilities.   
  2. Constitutions of motivational incentive, e.g., free tuition, free text book, free copy books, and free uniforms, etc.
  3. Lunching of in service and compulsory crash course teachers training programmers. 
  4. Special course in the teaching of English, Mathematics, and Science.
  5. Consolidating of DITE.
  6. Need basic up- primary of primary/ upper primary School.
  7. Implementing of SarvaShikshaAbhiyan (SSA), Education Guarantee Scheme (EGS) and Alternative and Innovative Education Scheme (AIES).

According to the 10thFive Year Plan (2002-2007) the thrust in Higher education were given in the following areas:

  1. Expansion of facilities in the Sikkim Government Colleges at Tadong and Namchi and other places.
  2. Establishment of additional Degree Colleges and Science colleges.
  3. Introduction to post Graduate course in Sikkim Government College.
  4. Upgrading of course in Bhutia/Lepcha/Limboo to graduate status.
  5. Expansion and Upgrading of the Sikkim Institute of Higher Nyingmapa studies at Gangtok.
  6. Consolidation of SankritPathshalas and improvement of Sanskrit MahaVidyalaya.  

As per the Annual report for the year 2007-2008, there were ninety-two secondary schools in the state with a total enrolment of 8,809 students. During the 10th five years plan, (2002-2007) the basic thrust was given to: 

  1. The Introduction of vocational courses for 20 per cent of students in Class ix and x
  2. The Expansion of Teachers Training facilities 
  3. The Establishment of two training center for Mathematics and science
  4. Special coaching classes for teachers during the winter vacation in English, Mathematics, and Science.
  5. The Re-introduction of Computer Literacy and Student in school project of Ministry of Human Resource Development.

The vocational Education was introduced from February 2004 onwards. This was introduced as a distinct vocational stream at the plus 2 level in forty Government Secondary Schools in Sikkim. The state Government has taken a number of important initiatives in tune with the National Policy of Education, and the recommendation of the National Curriculum Framework.   

According to the Annual Report of the financial year 2007-2008, there were 42 Senior Secondary School with a total enrolment of 5521 students. Upgraded the existing Secondary Schools into Senior Secondary Schools and up gradation was done on public demand. Most of the Senior Secondary Schools are managed by the government and are affiliated in the Central Board of Secondary Education, New Delhi. As the Government jobs in the state having reached a saturation point, it was expected that professional training and vocational education at the school level would provide students the skill to find ‘Self- Employment. The National policy for Education has stressed the need to impart Vocational Education at the Senior Secondary Level. So, the objective of vocational education is arming the students with the right knowledge and practical skills to prepare them for gainful self-employment. This also will diversify opportunities.

It will also fulfill the State’s goals of development with the special emphasis on the self-reliance mission and the removal of unemployment. Finally it will connect education to productivity, economic development, and individual prosperity. The target of coverage is Senior Secondary students as envisaged by the Kulandaiswamy Committee Report, 2000. The state does not have an Adult and Non-formal education, although the literacy figure recorded quite an appreciable progress. However, the National Adult Education Program was introduced in 1978 which was subsequently taken over by the State Adult Program. The State also implemented the central sponsored Adult Education programme which is known as the Ruler Functional Literature Program for the eradication of adult literacy in the 15-35 years age group. Both the programs were discontinued now.

 Education as such in Sikkim was started with monastic education. Monasteries were important socio-cultural institutions in Sikkim and Sikkim was a Buddhist states. Lamas were the spiritual head. The monasteries enjoyed the patronage of the Chogyals. Naturally developing monastic education was part of this support. In the earlier periods, Buddhist teachers were brought from Tibetan monasteries to impart education to the monks in Sikkim in scriptures and religion. These types of education were to benefit those who were preparing for the religious order. In Sikkim, as in Tibet, the priest were made and not born. It was after severe tests in religious education in Buddhist scriptures that a young seeker was admitted into order. Until the major the major part of 19th century, this was the only system of education existed in the country. However, early 20th century, modern education was introduced in Sikkim by the Christian missionaries. British also contributed in the development of education system in Sikkim. 

 Previously, only those wealthy people had access to education. They sent their children, mostly boys, to the neighboring Darjeeling or to other places in British India. Apart from the Lamaistic education imparted in the monasteries, in early 20th century, public schools were established;  A Bhutia boarding school was established in 1906 and the Nepali Boarding School in 1907 in Gangtok. In 1909, SidkeongTulku established a monastic school, the Enchey School to provide education to lamas drawn from various monasteries in Sikkim at government expense. In the initial period, education in Sikkim was exclusively for the rich kid of Kazis and Thikadars and for children belonged to wealthy families. This also perpetuated a rural-urban divide. Villages were under the control of absentee landlords and their stooges. In Sikkim, the landlords had vast powers of revenue collection, policing, registration of lands. They were also acted as the magistrates. The poor peasants were exploited endlessly under the yoke of feudalism. So the Bustiwallas never had access to education and they remained either illiterate or semi-literature. They did not have any resources to send their children to the schools even if schools were there. They preferred their children to work as it fetched some additional income to the poor families. Education opportunity was not universalized while it was restricted to the upper class people only, so on that those day people of rural area were not able to give a proper education to their children. 

The Scottish missionaries played a huge role in bringing education in Sikkim. Since the year 1883   when the Scottish University Mission Association decided to support the people of Sikkim in the field of education under the leadership of Sir Reverend Macfarlane, as many schools were established in South and West Sikkim to educate the children of the poor. The credit for establishing the first regular girls’ school also goes to them. The Palzor Namgyal Girls School was one of this kinds established in Gangtok in 1924 by Madam Marcy Scot, who had been close to the then political Officer and also with the Royal family. The school however catered the needs of the girl children of the Kazis and other belonged to the elitist class. The curriculum included English, cooking, first aid, and needle work. 

However from the Royal family side, it was at the personal interest of Oxford read Maharaja Kumar Sidkeyang Tulku that taken a step forward introducing female education.This issue was discussed in the State Council meeting held on 1st August 1912 and a favorable decision was taken by the Council. Education became one of the priorities since the first 7 year plan had begun to operative in 1954. Since then, gradually the number of schools in Sikkim had increased.

When the Sikkim became a 22nd state of India, Sikkim joined the main stream. Since then, Sikkim witnessed a rapid and phenomenal expansion of education. After 1975 when Sikkim became the part of Indian Union, the educational administrative structure of the state revamped from top to the bottom to match the modern system of education. So during the passage time people of rural as well as urban areas of Sikkim, parents began to send their children to school for basic education; this decreased the rural-urban divide too. The State government gradually in collaboration with the Central Government of India had taken necessary measure to make Sikkim one of the modern and developed states of India.

From 1997 onwards the pupils of Sikkim state appeared in the examination conducted by CBSE.The Government of Sikkim has given importance to the education sector through various plans in different period. Sikkim with the help of the Government of India increased the number of educational institutions in Sikkim. With the passage of infrastructure had been developed and everyone has access to basic education today- which is free and compulsory. In today’s scenario in Sikkim the education system also changed the mindset of the Sikkimese people. They believed in education is better than the agriculture work and slowly people of Sikkim came forward in the field of education system. 

At present, the education system in Sikkim is well structured. Under the Director of Academic there are seven units of Planning and Statistics, State Institute of Education, National Literacy Mission- Adult Education and Non- Formal Education, Expansion and Scholarship, Language Education, Text-Books and Library this all facilities were provided for the education system in Sikkim. Slowly Technological education system was started like Computer education, Vocational Education etc. The DIET Scheme, a centrally sponsored schema, was extend to Sikkim in 1998, as a part of National Level intervention for re-structuring and re-organizing Teachers Education (NEPI1986). However, it was only in 1998 that TTI was converted into a DIET. At present DITE offers two-years pre-service training programs along with other short term in-service programs at regular intervals. The state has sanctioned two additional DITEs for South and West District. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, lunched in 2000-2001 had a huge impact on the access to primary education in the State. 

The vocational Education which was introduced in February 2004 was also a played a considerable role in the field of vocational education. The state Government has taken a number of importance’s imitative in tune with the National Policy of Education, and the recommendation of the National Curriculum Framework, Socio-economic survey in 2006. Well after years later, the State government of Sikkim is gradually in collaboration with the Central Government of India because of taking a necessary measure to make Sikkim one of the modern state and developed states of India. 

So in brief, over the years since the first public school established in Gangtok in 1906, the education system developed considerably in Sikkim. At present Sikkim had a Central University, State University and various colleges run by the govern in all the four districts- East, South, West and North- in Sikkim. Apart from that private management too run various educational institutions in the State. Apart from the Sikkimese students, the universities in Sikkim also attract students from other States in India and also international students from Nepal and Bhutan. Due to special provisions granted to Sikkim, all the staff in the governmental administration, except in the Indian Administrative Cadre, must be selected from the Sikkimese. This also contributed to the development of education in Sikkim.

by Degan Gurung